Pelvic Organ Prolapse

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Last updated: July 2021

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Understanding Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs erstwhile the pelvic organs driblet oregon prolapse from their mean presumption owed to the weakening of the pelvic floor. In women, a POP is simply a hernia of the vaginal canal. It’s erstwhile a pelvic organ (e.g., bladder, uterus, vaginal wall, tiny bowel) bulges into the vagina owed to a weakened pelvic floor. Usually the pelvic floor—which is made up of muscles, connective tissues, and nerves—works to enactment the operation and relation of the pelvic organs. But erstwhile the pelvic level is weakened oregon damaged and tin nary longer supply due support, a prolapse tin occur. Although it’s rare, POP tin hap successful men.

There are antithetic types of POP depending upon which pelvic organ is involved. Below are the communal types and their related pelvic organs. To get a amended representation of these, you tin instrumentality a look astatine the animations created by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  1. Uterine prolapse: Uterus moves down into the vagina.

  2. Cystocele (anterior vaginal partition prolapse): Bladder bulges into the vagina.

  3. Rectocele (posterior vaginal partition prolapse): Rectum bulges into the vagina.

  4. Vaginal vault prolapse: Vaginal partition moves down into the vaginal canal and the apical of the vagina loses enactment and drops into itself.

  5. Enterocele: Small intestine bulges into the vagina.

POP occurs successful stages. Early stages are erstwhile pelvic organs person descended a abbreviated distance. More-severe stages are erstwhile they person moved farther down. Each signifier is measured and categorized based connected however acold a pelvic organ has descended into the vaginal canal, utilizing the opening of the vagina arsenic a constituent of reference. Stages scope from 0 to 4. Zero represents the lack of a prolapse and 4 represents the top descent of the prolapse.

  1. Stage 0: No prolapse.

  2. Stage 1: Prolapse is descended halfway to the opening of the vagina.

  3. Stage 2: Prolapse is descended to the opening of the vagina.

  4. Stage 3: Prolapse is descended beyond the opening of the vagina.

  5. Stage 4: Prolapse has descended the maximum possible.

(ACOG, 2019, 2019; DeLancey, 2016; Hans Peter Dietz, 2015; Iglesia & Smithling, 2017; Tso et al., 2018; Vergeldt et al., 2015; Weintraub et al., 2020)

Primary Symptoms

In aboriginal stages of POP, astir radical bash not acquisition symptoms oregon are asymptomatic. If oregon erstwhile POP reaches aboriginal stages, symptoms are much apt to occur. Many prolapses are not detected until aboriginal stages, erstwhile radical person symptoms of a disposable bulge protruding from the vagina, which occurs successful signifier 3 oregon 4. Urinary and bowel symptoms, similar urinary incontinence, incomplete emptying of the bladder, constipation, oregon fecal incontinence whitethorn besides beryllium experienced during stages 3 and 4. These symptoms tin dramatically interfere with regular activities, similar regular tasks, chores, and carnal and recreational activities. They tin marque it hard to locomotion oregon basal for agelong periods of time, truthful galore radical study decreased productivity with POP. Whether you person symptoms oregon not, speaking with your gynecologist astir pelvic wellness and POP tin beryllium beneficial. (Anyone who has fixed commencement should inquire their doc astir it.) For inspiration connected however to commencement the conversation, you tin ticker these videos from the National Association for Continence and Voices for PFD (Pelvic Floor Disorders) (Iglesia & Smithling, 2017; Ouchi et al., 2017; Tso et al., 2018; Vergeldt et al., 2015).

How Many People Are Affected by Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

About 25 percent of women successful the US and astir 50 percent of women worldwide person POP. These estimates scope wide depending connected however the information is collected, and they whitethorn not bespeak the existent rates. In the US, researchers study that anyplace from 3 to 50 percent of women person POP. Lower rates are seen erstwhile researchers cod information based connected symptoms alone, and since astir women are asymptomatic, debased rates apt bespeak undetected cases of POP. Higher percentages are reported erstwhile the information is collected from gynecological examinations, wherever doctors tin visually observe carnal evidence—sometimes called an nonsubjective prolapse. By 2050, the fig of women successful the US with POP is expected to summation to astir 50 percent. (Iglesia & Smithling, 2017; Weintraub et al., 2020; Whitcomb et al., 2009).

POP is caused by the weakening of the pelvic floor, which is made up of muscles, connective tissues, and nerves. They each enactment unneurotic to enactment the pelvic organs and let them to relation properly. One musculus radical is peculiarly important successful forming the pelvic floor—the levator ani muscle. It is simply a thin, wide musculus radical that forms a ample information of the pelvic level (shown here). It interacts with pelvic connective tissues to enactment the pelvic organs, akin to a hammock holding your body. It allows the uterus and vagina to connect to the broadside walls of the pelvis, which is important for keeping them successful their due spot and maintaining their function. If the levator ani musculus is weakened oregon damaged, pelvic organs tin determination from their mean determination and descend oregon protrude into the vagina, causing a prolapse.

The weakening of oregon wounded to the levator ani musculus is apt owed to a operation of things—anatomy, physiology, genes, lifestyle, and reproductive factors—that alteration passim a women’s life. The astir salient contributors are childbirth, menopause, precocious age, and elevated assemblage wide scale (BMI). Other hazard factors see household past of prolapse; chronically accrued intra-abdominal unit from chronic cough, constipation, oregon repeated dense lifting; and perchance ethnicity and contention (more connected that below).

Stress urinary incontinence (leakage owed to laughing, coughing, sneezing, jumping, etc.), overactive bladder, and fecal incontinence (uncontrolled bowel movements) are wellness concerns that whitethorn beryllium linked to the dysfunction of pelvic level muscles and tin beryllium experienced with POP. But having these conditions does not needfully mean you person developed POP (Iglesia & Smithling, 2017; Tso et al., 2018; Vergeldt et al., 2015; Weintraub et al., 2020).


Childbirth is the superior contributing origin for processing POP. It’s imaginable for radical who person not fixed commencement to make POP, but it’s precise rare. Women who person fixed commencement to 1 kid are 4 times much apt to acquisition POP than women who person not fixed birth. And those who person fixed commencement to 2 children are 8 times much apt to make POP. And the effects tin beryllium agelong delayed. A survey showed that women tin acquisition POP sixteen to twenty-four years aft their archetypal delivery. We don’t cognize for definite wherefore childbirth increases the hazard of POP, but it’s apt related to trauma to the pelvic level during vaginal delivery. About 85 percent of vaginal deliveries effect successful immoderate benignant of pelvic level trauma. An wounded to the levator ani musculus increases the hazard of a prolapse sevenfold, and this wounded occurs successful astir 10 to 30 percent of vaginal deliveries. The accrued hazard of an wounded to the pelvic level is not seen with Cesarean births. Some studies amusement a decreased hazard of experiencing POP with a Cesarean delivery, yet much probe is needed to find if this is mostly true.

Operative Vaginal Birth and the Pelvic Floor

Damage to the levator ani musculus is astir apt to hap with a vaginal commencement that includes the usage of forceps oregon vacuum assistance for delivery. This is called an operative vaginal birth. Having an operative vaginal commencement importantly increases the chances of prolapse, compared to a spontaneous vaginal birth, which is simply a commencement that does not see the usage forceps oregon vacuum assistance.

Operative transportation is performed erstwhile the vaginal canal is not expanded to the grade that allows the babe to beryllium birthed. Being older during your archetypal vaginal commencement and having a heavier babe tin summation the likelihood of needing an operative vaginal birth. Being acrophobic of childbirth, feeling unsafe, and not being capable to take your birthing presumption tin origin the pelvic level to tighten and forestall the vaginal canal from expanding, besides expanding the accidental of needing an operative vaginal birth.

The chances of an operative commencement tin beryllium lessened by decreasing the fear, providing a unafraid environment, and offering comfortableness during childbirth. Simply allowing a birthing parent to alteration positions during commencement tin alteration the hazard of pelvic trauma. And studies amusement that delaying the commencement of pushing—as opposed to rushing labor—decreases the hazard of pelvic wounded and prolapse. In general, having a transportation squad that supports a women’s unsocial birthing process and timing tin beryllium highly beneficial (Blomquist et al., 2018, 2020; Cargill & MacKinnon, 2018; H. P. Dietz & Simpson, 2008; H.P. Dietz & Wilson, 2005; Doumouchtsis et al., 2020; Handa et al., 2011, 2019; Iglesia & Smithling, 2017; Lindgren et al., 2011; Martinho et al., 2019; Weintraub et al., 2020).

Menopause and Age

Women are much apt to make prolapse aboriginal successful life. The information is not complete, but estimates amusement that of each the cases of POP, women eighty years of property and older marque up astir 50 percent of the cases, women 50 to fifty-nine years of property marque up 31 percent, and women 20 to twenty-nine marque up 6 percent. Considering the summation successful the aging colonisation successful the US, it’s expected that the prevalence of POP volition summation from the existent 25 percent of women to astir 50 percent by 2050.

There is simply a nonstop nexus betwixt menopause and POP that is autarkic of age, adjacent though they are inherently connected. The accrued hazard of processing POP that comes with menopause and precocious property is apt owed to a operation of factors, predominantly little levels of estrogen during menopause, which leads to changes successful collagen production. Since collagen is simply a structural macromolecule that makes up muscles, bones, and connective tissues, erstwhile little collagen is present, the pelvic muscles and connective tissues tin weaken, contributing to the improvement of POP (ACOG, 2019; Weintraub et al., 2020).

Other Potential Causes

Research is inactive emerging connected the factors that lend to processing POP, but information amusement that elevated BMI, smoking, chronic coughing, repeated dense lifting, constipation, and household past each play a role. Researchers hypothesize that the accrued hazard of processing POP from elevated BMI, chronic coughing, smoking, repeated dense lifting, and constipation whitethorn beryllium connected to a chronic summation successful interior abdominal pressure, which means unit wrong of the abdomen. Over time, accrued unit wrong the abdomen weakens the pelvic floor, which tin pb to POP. And since these factors tin each chronically summation interior abdominal pressure, they tin subsequently summation the chances of processing POP.

Women who person a household past of POP are much than doubly arsenic apt to make it. This could beryllium successful portion owed to a familial origin that prevents immoderate women from making beardown collagen, affecting the spot of the pelvic floor. Research is emerging connected the circumstantial genes this could beryllium owed to, and 1 beardown contender is the collagen benignant 3 alpha 1 (COL3A1) rs1800255 genotype AA. A survey showed that this genotype was importantly associated with POP successful an Asian and Dutch colonisation of women. However, studies examining different populations of women person not recovered familial variations linked to POP.

It’s thought that contention plays a relation successful the hazard of processing POP, but the grounds is conflicting. Some studies person reported that contention is not a origin successful women processing POP, and different studies person reported that it is simply a factor. In 1 survey looking astatine a divers colonisation of implicit 1,000 women (44 percent White, 20 percent Black, 18 percent Asian American, 18 percent Latina oregon different race), researchers recovered that White and Latina women were much apt to make POP than Asian and Black women. Latina and White women had a 4 to 5 times higher hazard of processing symptomatic prolapse compared to Black women. And White women had a 40 percent higher hazard of processing a signifier 3 to 4 prolapse than Black women (Giri et al., 2015; Graham & Mallett, 2001; Kudish et al., 2011; Nygaard, 2008; Vergeldt et al., 2015; Weintraub et al., 2020; Whitcomb et al., 2009).

POP often coexists with different pelvic level disorders. Many radical with POP person accent urinary incontinence (leakage owed to laughing, coughing, sneezing, jumping, etc.), overactive bladder, and fecal incontinence (uncontrolled bowel movements). Treating POP tin relieve the severity of these symptoms (Iglesia & Smithling, 2017).

How Pelvic Organ Prolapse Disease Is Diagnosed

A pelvic introspection is needed to diagnose POP. The benignant and signifier of prolapse tin beryllium determined done this examination. A superior attraction doc tin typically behaviour a screening and a basal evaluation, but for precocious appraisal and treatment, a gynecologic specializer with committee certification successful pistillate pelvic medicine and reconstructive country is recommended. Depending upon the signifier of POP, immoderate radical whitethorn not beryllium alert that they person a prolapse, truthful asking your gynecologist if they spot aboriginal signs of a prolapse astatine your adjacent sojourn whitethorn beryllium beneficial (Iglesia & Smithling, 2017).

Pelvic Examination

If POP is detected during a pelvic examination, its signifier is measured utilizing a quantification strategy called POP-Q (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification). POP-Q measures however acold an organ has prolapsed into the vaginal canal by utilizing the hymen, a bladed membrane surrounding the opening of the vagina, arsenic a constituent of reference. Based connected these measurements, POP is classified into stages 0 to 4. POP-Q was created by the International Continence Society arsenic a strategy to uniformly measurement the stages of POP and to amended pass diagnoses, preventive measures, treatments, etc. (Bump et al., 1996; H.P. Dietz & Wilson, 2005; Persu et al., 2011).

Dietary Changes for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

There are nary known dietary changes that tin assistance trim the hazard of POP. But theoretically, since weakened collagen whitethorn beryllium linked to processing POP, expanding foods precocious successful collagen oregon collagen supplementation whitethorn beryllium worthy considering. Vitamin C is progressive successful collagen production, truthful supplementing with vitamin C whitethorn beryllium helpful, too. However, determination is nary probe to enactment the thought that doing truthful would beryllium beneficial (Arnouk et al., 2017).

Lifestyle Support for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Anything that chronically increases intra-abdominal unit oregon involves excessive straining tin summation the chances of a prolapse. Over time, the unit tin harm muscles, nerves, and connective tissues that marque up the pelvic floor, expanding the chances of processing POP. To trim your risk, it’s suggested that you debar activities that enactment other strain connected the pelvic floor, similar smoking (which tin pb to chronic coughing), repeated dense lifting, constipation, and excessive value gain. Pelvic level exercises whitethorn besides assistance forestall POP (discussed successful the Conventional Treatment Options section) (Arnouk et al., 2017; Iglesia & Smithling, 2017).

Conventional Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

The superior extremity of treating POP is to alteration symptoms and minimize the prolapse’s progress. Treatment options alteration depending connected the idiosyncratic and the signifier of prolapse. Some radical take not to person immoderate treatment, but if the prolapse is impeding their regular activities oregon is beyond the opening of the vagina, past astir take to person immoderate intervention.

The accepted options to dainty POP see Kegels (pelvic level musculus training), pessaries (ring-shaped medical-grade silicone devices placed successful the vagina), and surgery. More probe is needed to find conscionable however effectual Kegels and pessary usage are, but it’s wide they are beneficial. For astir radical with prolapse, pessary usage is simply a viable nonsurgical option, unneurotic with Kegels. More than 2 thirds of women take pessaries arsenic their treatment, and 77 percent of those who usage pessaries proceed to bash truthful for longer than a year. Kegels and pessary usage whitethorn beryllium much effectual successful aboriginal stages of POP, but that is yet to beryllium confirmed.

Surgery whitethorn beryllium required for those who person much terrible symptoms of POP, similar obstruction of urine flow, swelling of the kidneys, recurrent urinary tract infections, oregon infections of the vaginal canal oregon cervix. But it’s mostly recommended that blimpish options (like Kegels, pessaries, and manner changes) beryllium the archetypal enactment of attraction for POP, particularly successful aboriginal stages (Iglesia & Smithling, 2017; C. Li et al., 2016; Tso et al., 2018; Vergeldt et al., 2015).


Pelvic level musculus training, commonly known arsenic Kegels, is the intentional contraction and relaxation of the pelvic level muscles. Kegels are truthful effectual for strengthening the pelvic level that the International Continence Society recommends them arsenic the archetypal enactment of attraction for POP. Kegels tin summation the spot and thickness of the pelvic level muscles, including the levator ani musculus (a musculus radical associated with processing POP erstwhile it’s damaged oregon weakened). And they tin amended POP and the symptoms of vaginal irregularities (vaginal bulging oregon heaviness), accent urinary incontinence, and fecal incontinence.

Kegel attraction is astir effectual erstwhile performed consistently and with the guidance of a carnal therapist. A survey showed that women who performed 3 sets of 8 to 12 Kegels per time for six months, with play supervision by a carnal therapist, improved their prolapse by 1 signifier (e.g., going from a signifier 2 to signifier 1 prolapse). In different study, important betterment successful the prime of life, carnal abilities, affectional health, and wide well-being—all things that are typically disrupted by POP—was seen aft 8 to 12 weeks of Kegel exercises (forty-five to sixty Kegels per day, divided into 2 oregon 3 sets). Other studies amusement that 12 to sixteen weeks of Kegels tin summation pelvic musculus strength. And determination is emerging probe suggesting that consistently performing Kegels wrong the six- to twelve-week postpartum play whitethorn lend to preventing a prolapse aboriginal successful life.

How to Do Kegel Exercises

Performing Kegel exercises is not ever intuitive. To get acquainted with however to decently execute them, you tin bash this little test. While urinating, effort to halt your watercourse of urine. The muscles you usage to halt your urine travel are the close muscles to compression erstwhile performing Kegel exercises. Use this lone arsenic a trial to place the close pelvic level muscles and not to execute your Kegel routines. Consistently performing Kegels portion urinating tin origin urinary tract infections.

You tin besides trial for the close pelvic level muscles by placing 1 digit wrong the vagina portion you’re sitting oregon lying down and squeezing your pelvic level muscles. If you’re squeezing the close pelvic level muscles, you tin consciousness your digit beryllium squeezed and lifted. These are the muscles to declaration erstwhile performing Kegels.

Once you’ve identified the close pelvic muscles, you tin statesman consistently performing Kegel exercises: Slowly compression the pelvic level muscles, clasp the squeeze, dilatory unbend the pelvic level muscles, breathe, and repeat. It’s typically recommended that you commencement with a three-second hold, and you tin summation the clip arsenic the pelvic muscles strengthen. For example, commencement by squeezing for 3 seconds, past wholly unbend the muscles for 3 seconds. You tin repetition this 10 times, 3 times a day. With accrued pelvic musculus strength, the clip of contraction and relaxation tin summation for up to 10 seconds. For different effectual Kegel workout routines, cheque retired the Voices for Pelvic Floor Disorders and National Association for Continence recommendations. You tin find a trained carnal therapist astatine the American Physical Therapy Association. (Bø, 2012; Braekken et al., 2010; Harvey, 2003; Iglesia & Smithling, 2017; C. Li et al., 2016; Ouchi et al., 2017; Romeikienė & Bartkevičienė, 2021; Tso et al., 2018; Zhao et al., 2018).


Properly performing Kegels is important for strengthening the pelvic level muscles and improving POP. Yet these exercises are not ever intuitive, leaving galore women performing them incorrectly and not seeing improvement. Biofeedback is simply a complementary attraction process that uses physiological feedback to usher women to correctly declaration and unbend the pelvic level muscles. It does truthful by monitoring the enactment of the pelvic level successful existent clip portion Kegels exercises are being performed. Generally, sensors are placed successful the vagina and/or astir the pelvic portion during Kegel exercises. The sensors observe which pelvic muscles are contracting, however tightly they are contracting, and for however long. A biofeedback therapist tin assistance construe this contiguous feedback and usher you into doing the Kegels the close way. And newer integer biofeedback devices let radical to show and get contiguous feedback, without assistance, successful the comfortableness of their homes (Ahadi et al., 2017; Bø, 2012; NAFC, 2018a).

Electrical Stimulation

As the sanction implies, electrical stimulation delivers electrical impulses to the pelvic level muscles to assistance them contract. This method allows radical to familiarize themselves with the determination of their pelvic level muscles and what it feels similar for them to contract. Typically, a instrumentality is placed successful the vagina that stimulates the nerves and muscles of the pelvic floor. A tightening oregon lifting of the pelvic level muscles is usually felt. When utilized with pelvic level musculus training, probe shows that electrical stimulation tin assistance to fortify pelvic level muscles, amended POP, and amended symptoms of accent urinary incontinence (Allon, 2019; Arnouk et al., 2017; W. Li et al., 2020; NAFC, 2018b; Q. J. Wang et al., 2019).

Pessary Use

Pessaries are commonly utilized to assistance radical negociate POP and its symptoms. They are devices, usually ring-shaped and made from medical-grade silicone, that are placed successful the vagina to supply pelvic support. Pessaries are an enactment for immoderate signifier of prolapse. They tin forestall a prolapse from progressing oregon alteration its symptoms and whitethorn forestall oregon hold the request for surgery. For galore people, they tin beryllium life-changing by improving productivity and allowing accrued carnal enactment and societal engagement. The valuation of semipermanent usage of pessaries is ongoing. In a twelve-year survey looking astatine 310 women sixty-five to seventy-four years of age, 41 percent of women continued to usage a pessary aft 12 years, and astir utilized it for astir 8 years.

But adjacent though pessaries are a large enactment for many, radical with a hysterectomy, pelvic reconstructive surgery, oregon vaginal partition prolapse whitethorn beryllium little apt to acquisition occurrence with pessary use. More pelvic enactment whitethorn beryllium needed. People who are improbable to travel instructions for the attraction and attraction of the pessary whitethorn privation to debar utilizing them, due to the fact that superior complications tin hap if a pessary is not cared for properly. And radical with dementia whitethorn besides privation to debar utilizing a pessary, due to the fact that remembering instructional attraction is critical, arsenic whitethorn those with pelvic pain, arsenic a pessary whitethorn origin further pain.

Even though pessaries are mostly harmless and effective, they whitethorn person broadside effects. Vaginal discharge, irritation, ulceration, bleeding, pain, and odor are the astir communal complications. Bacterial vaginosis (a vaginal corruption caused by bacteria overgrowth) tin hap successful up to 30 percent of pessary users, but it is much communal successful those who region them little frequently. It’s important to cleanable the pessary regularly and cheque successful with your doctor. Together, you and your doc tin find if pessary attraction is champion you (Iglesia & Smithling, 2017; Ramsay et al., 2016; Tso et al., 2018).


Surgery is besides an enactment for treating POP, usually for women with signifier 3 oregon 4 prolapse. Surgery tin close the anatomy of the pelvic level and organs and assistance with symptoms—improving vaginal, bladder, and bowel function. In the US, the mean property astatine the clip of country for POP is sixty to sixty-five years old. Yet country does not warrant that the prolapse volition not return—6 to 30 percent of women necessitate a 2nd country for a recurring prolapse, which is much apt successful women sixty years of property oregon younger, with signifier 3 oregon 4 prolapse, and with a little experienced surgeon. Common surgical options for treating POP are:

  1. Cystocele repair: repairs prolapsed bladder oregon urethra

  2. Hysterectomy: removes the uterus

  3. Rectocele: repairs fallen rectum and tiny bowel

  4. Vaginal vault suspension: repairs the vaginal wall

  5. Colpocleisis (vaginal obliteration oregon vaginal closure): closes the vagina

FDA Ban connected Transvaginal Mesh Repair Surgery

Transvaginal mesh repair is the insertion of a mesh, a netlike aesculapian device, done the vagina for the attraction of POP. In the past decade, thousands of women person reported complications from a transvaginal mesh repair for POP, including infections, pain, trouble urinating, incontinence, reoccurring POP, and perforation oregon erosion of organs and tissues. As of April 2019, the FDA has banned this surgery. The prohibition is for transvaginal mesh repair, specifically; different mesh repairs are deemed harmless and stay surgical options. For those who person already had a transvaginal mesh repair, the FDA advises continuing with regular checkups and follow-up care. More accusation connected FDA’s recommendations is here (Cleveland Clinic, 2020; FDA, 2019; Hoff, 2020).

New and Promising Research connected Pelvic Organ Prolapse

New probe connected treatments for POP amusement continued imaginable for effectual less-invasive treatments with constricted broadside effects. Studies are scarce, but the results are promising.

How Do You Evaluate Research Studies and Identify Promising Results?

The results of objective studies are described passim this article, and you whitethorn wonderment which treatments are worthy discussing with your doctor. When a peculiar payment is described successful lone 1 oregon 2 studies, see it of imaginable involvement and possibly worthy discussing, but decidedly not conclusive. Repetition is however the technological assemblage polices itself and verifies that a peculiar attraction is of value. When benefits tin beryllium reproduced by aggregate investigators, they are much apt to beryllium existent and meaningful. We’ve tried to absorption connected reappraisal articles and meta-analyses that instrumentality each the disposable results into account; these are much apt to springiness america a broad valuation of a peculiar subject. Of course, determination tin beryllium flaws successful research, and if by accidental each of the objective studies connected a peculiar therapy are flawed—for illustration with insufficient randomization oregon lacking a power group—then reviews and meta-analyses based connected these studies volition beryllium flawed. But successful general, it’s a compelling motion erstwhile probe results tin beryllium repeated.

Laser Therapy

Laser therapy is simply a attraction that uses focused airy to stimulate insubstantial repair. The probe connected laser therapy and POP is slim, yet extraordinarily promising. One survey showed that with 3 to 4 laser treatments, 95 percent of women improved their POP by astatine slightest 1 stage. Results showed that 50 percent of women with signifier 2 prolapse improved to signifier 0 and 43 percent to signifier 1. Twenty percent of women with signifier 3 prolapse improved to signifier 0 and 40 percent to signifier 2. And 83 percent of women with the astir terrible prolapse, signifier 4, improved to signifier 1, with the remaining 17 percent improving to signifier 2. The probe was conducted successful sixty-one women utilizing laser therapy with a 2940nm vaginal erbium laser with SMOOTH mode. Another survey reported important betterment successful POP utilizing different laser therapy method (erbium yttrium-aluminum-garnet; Er:YAG) (Fistonić & Fistonić, 2018; Mackova et al., 2020).


Another enactment that holds imaginable for treating POP is electroacupuncture, a modified mentation of accepted acupuncture. Electroacupuncture combines electrical stimulation with needles astatine each attraction point. An electrical existent runs done the needles, providing much stimulation than the modular manipulation utilized by an acupuncturist. Researchers are opening to uncover its imaginable usage successful treating POP, but studies amusement that electroacupuncture, combined with different therapies, strengthens pelvic level muscles and improves the presumption of POP (Liu et al., 2016; L.-L. Wang et al., 2020).

Ongoing Clinical Trials for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Clinical trials are probe studies intended to measure a medical, surgical, oregon behavioral intervention. They are done truthful that researchers tin survey a peculiar attraction that whitethorn not person a batch of information connected its information oregon effectiveness yet. If you’re considering signing up for a objective trial, it’s important to enactment that if you’re placed successful the placebo group, you won’t person entree to the attraction being studied. It’s besides bully to recognize the signifier of the objective trial: Phase 1 is the archetypal clip astir drugs volition beryllium utilized successful humans truthful it’s astir uncovering a harmless dose. If the cause makes it done the archetypal trial, it tin beryllium utilized successful a larger signifier 2 proceedings to spot whether it works well. Then it whitethorn beryllium compared to a known effectual attraction successful a signifier 3 trial. If the cause is approved by the FDA, it volition spell connected to a signifier 4 trial. Phase 3 and signifier 4 trials are the astir apt to impact the astir effectual and safest up-and-coming treatments.

In general, objective trials whitethorn output invaluable information; they whitethorn supply benefits for immoderate radical but person undesirable outcomes for others. Speak with your doc astir immoderate objective proceedings you are considering. To find studies that are presently recruiting for assorted treatments for Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP), spell to We’ve highlighted immoderate below.

Genital Vibrators

Apparently vibrators are not conscionable for pleasure. Karyn Eilber, MD, astatine Cedars Sinai Medical Center volition soon beryllium recruiting women to measure the usage of genital vibrators connected POP and different pelvic dysfunctions. For 3 to 4 months, participants volition usage a vibrator for clitoral stimulation 3 times a week for astatine slightest 5 minutes oregon until orgasm is reached. Participants volition beryllium evaluated aft 3 to 4 months to entree the grade of POP, intersexual function, and prime of life.

Laser Therapy

Because laser therapy seems to beryllium effectual and seems to person minimal broadside effects, probe connected laser therapy for POP is growing. The Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust is recruiting patients with POP to spot whether laser therapy with the FotonaSmooth Er:YAG laser is effectual successful improving POP and its symptoms. Four laser treatments volition beryllium fixed during at-home visits erstwhile each 4 weeks. And participants volition beryllium evaluated six and 12 months aft treatment.


Research connected electroacupuncture is ongoing. Zhishun Liu, PhD, MD, astatine Guang’anmen Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences volition beryllium recruiting patients to analyse electroacupuncture for POP. Treatment volition beryllium fixed to patients astatine acupuncture points BL33, BL35, and SP6 for 3 months for a full of twenty-four attraction sessions: 3 times a week for the archetypal 4 weeks, doubly a week for the adjacent 4 weeks, and erstwhile a week for the past 4 weeks of the study. Participants volition beryllium evaluated three, six, and 9 months aft the commencement of electroacupuncture treatments.

Radiofrequency Therapy

Research is conscionable emerging connected radiofrequency therapy for treating POP. Nonablative radiofrequency is utilized to vigor insubstantial and to stimulate collagen growth. Juan Carlos Fernández-Domínguez, PhD, astatine the University of the Balearic Islands successful Palma, Spain, volition soon beryllium recruiting women to further analyse the effects connected POP of radiofrequency therapy with pelvic exercises. It could beryllium 1 of the archetypal objective trials published connected this topic.

Vaginal Probiotics

Although pessary usage is an effectual enactment for galore people, it tin interaction the mean microenvironment of the vagina and pb to broadside effects similar vaginal discharge, irritation, and odor. Elisabeth Sappenfield, MD, astatine Hartford Hospital is evaluating the effect of vaginal probiotics connected immoderate of the broadside effects of pessary use. In this trial, an over-the-counter vaginal probiotic supplement (BiopHresh) and a moisturizing idiosyncratic lubricant (Restore gel) are being tested with pessary use. Participants are asked to usage the vaginal lubricant and the probiotic vaginal suppository 3 times play for 3 months. Recruiting is presently successful progress.

Vaginal Estrogen

There is immoderate grounds that vaginal estrogen, combined with Kegel exercises, whitethorn assistance amended symptoms of POP. Pamela Moalli, MD, PhD, astatine the University of Pittsburgh is looking into this further. She’s currently recruiting women for a randomized controlled proceedings to spot whether Kegel exercises combined with Premarin vaginal estrogen pick amended symptoms.

Resources and Related Reading


  1. Voices for PFD, founded by the American Urogynecologic Society, has tons of user-friendly resources to larn astir pelvic organ prolapse and different pelvic level disorders. You tin hunt for wellness attraction providers, find tools to assistance you speech with your wellness attraction provider, and motion up for the society’s their newsletter. The downloadable fact sheets are fantabulous acquisition tools for pelvic health.

  2. ACOG (The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), leaders successful advancing women’s wellness care, created exceptional animations that let patients to recognize the antithetic types of pelvic organ prolapse and pessary treatments. They besides stock a patient’s story astir healing aft a prolapse and FAQs connected surgeries for treatment.

  3. The National Association for Continence offers a thoughtful video connected expressing pelvic wellness concerns with your doctor.

  4. The Office of Women’s Health was established by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to amended the wellness of women and girls. It addresses FAQs connected pelvic organ prolapse and provides information sheets. It besides has a helpline you tin telephone astatine 800.994.9662.

  5. The FDA maintains updated accusation connected uts informing connected the surgical mesh implants here.


  1. Holding the Ball: How I Survived Pelvic Organ Prolapse—without Surgery! by Julia F. Kaye.

  2. The Power Source by Lauren Roxburgh offers an inspiring multifaceted attack to caring for the pelvic floor, seeing it arsenic foundational to full assemblage health.

Relevant Reading connected goop

Q&A’s with Practitioners and Other Content

  1. “Understanding Urinary Incontinence and Pelvic Floor Disorders” with ob-gyn Rebecca Nelken, MD. Board-certified successful obstetrics and gynecology and pistillate pelvic medicine, Nelken discusses pelvic level disorders and options for treatment.

  2. “Ask Gerda: When Do I Need to Start Doing Kegels—and How?”. goop’s elder manager of subject and research, Gerda Endemann, PhD, discusses immoderate tools to assistance workout your pelvic floor.

  3. “The Secrets of the Pelvic Floor” with Lauren Roxburgh provides elaborate descriptions of exercises to stretch, strengthen, and unbend pelvic level muscles.

  4. “Menopause and Perimenopause” is an nonfiction successful the goop PhD room that includes accusation connected pelvic level wellness and treatments for incontinence and intersexual dysfunction related to debased estrogen levels.


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